Tag Archives: ICSI

A Cancer Patient Fathers a Child After 22 Years

A man who had his sperm frozen whilst undergoing treatment for leukaemia as a teenager, has, at 38, become the father of a healthy baby girl. Christopher Biblis from Charlotte, North Carolina, was 16 when he underwent radiotherapy treatment which would have left him sterile had his doctors not recommended he have his sperm frozen cryogenically for future use. In early March, his daughter Stella was born having been conceived using the technique intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique developed long after Biblis’ sperm had been frozen in 1986. 

’From my life being saved to being able to create a life…It’s truly a miracle’ Mr Biblis told ABC News. Stella was conceived after doctors selected the healthiest of Mr Biblis’ sperm cells after defrosting, and injected them directly into ten eggs cells which had been harvested from Melodie Biblis, Mr Biblis’s wife. Seven of the ten eggs fertilised successfully and two were implanted, leaving the other five for future treatment should the couple wish to have more children. Only one embryo survived and Stella is now a healthy one month old baby.

The fertility specialist treating the Biblis’s was Dr Richard L. Wing, founder of the Reproductive Endocrinology Associates of Charlotte (REACH). He said ‘I had no concern about working with old sperm – bovine and equine sperm has been frozen for long periods and has resulted in successful gestations’. The ICSI method brings an increased chance of conception beyond that expected in conventional IVF procedures where sperm and eggs are mixed to fertilise spontaneously. ‘They achieved pregnancy on their first cycle of ICSI…We had every reason to expect a perfect baby but are thrilled nonetheless’ said Dr Wing.

Last February, it was reported that a Canadian couple successfully conceived a baby boy after using sperm that had been stored 22 years, two months and two weeks. The longest-known storage period for sperm resulting in a live birth worldwide is 28 years, according to a 2005 data report in the American journal Fertility and Sterility.
Childhood cancer treatment has improved dramatically in the last decade resulting in a greater number of survivors. At the same time, improvements in the field of assisted conception are providing a great chance for male cancer survivors to father children of their own after potentially fertility-damaging treatment.
There is a relatively small window of opportunity before young male cancer patients begin treatment, so it is essential that health care providers are prepared and diligent about providing all options available in regard to improving future fertility.
There should be improved awareness of sperm banking and future fertility treatments that may impact the cancer patients quality of life.
Rotunda Sperm Bank offers sperm banking facilities to cancer patients and we have many cancer patients who have preserved their semen samples at Rotunda.

A man who had his sperm frozen whilst undergoing treatment for leukaemia as a teenager, has, at 38, become the father of a healthy baby girl. Christopher Biblis from Charlotte, North Carolina, was 16 when he underwent radiotherapy treatment which would have left him sterile had his doctors not recommended he have his sperm frozen cryogenically for future use. In early March, his daughter Stella was born having been conceived using the technique intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), a technique developed long after Biblis’ sperm had been frozen in 1986. 

’From my life being saved to being able to create a life…It’s truly a miracle’ Mr Biblis told ABC News. Stella was conceived after doctors selected the healthiest of Mr Biblis’ sperm cells after defrosting, and injected them directly into ten eggs cells which had been harvested from Melodie Biblis, Mr Biblis’s wife. Seven of the ten eggs fertilised successfully and two were implanted, leaving the other five for future treatment should the couple wish to have more children. Only one embryo survived and Stella is now a healthy one month old baby.

The fertility specialist treating the Biblis’s was Dr Richard L. Wing, founder of the Reproductive Endocrinology Associates of Charlotte (REACH). He said ‘I had no concern about working with old sperm – bovine and equine sperm has been frozen for long periods and has resulted in successful gestations’. The ICSI method brings an increased chance of conception beyond that expected in conventional IVF procedures where sperm and eggs are mixed to fertilise spontaneously. ‘They achieved pregnancy on their first cycle of ICSI…We had every reason to expect a perfect baby but are thrilled nonetheless’ said Dr Wing.

Last February, it was reported that a Canadian couple successfully conceived a baby boy after using sperm that had been stored 22 years, two months and two weeks. The longest-known storage period for sperm resulting in a live birth worldwide is 28 years, according to a 2005 data report in the American journal Fertility and Sterility.

Childhood cancer treatment has improved dramatically in the last decade resulting in a greater number of survivors. At the same time, improvements in the field of assisted conception are providing a great chance for male cancer survivors to father children of their own after potentially fertility-damaging treatment.

There is a relatively small window of opportunity before young male cancer patients begin treatment, so it is essential that health care providers are prepared and diligent about providing all options available in regard to improving future fertility.

There should be improved awareness of sperm banking and future fertility treatments that may impact the cancer patients quality of life.

Rotunda Sperm Bank offers sperm banking facilities to cancer patients and  many young cancer patients have preserved their semen samples at Rotunda.

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First the Biopsy, then The Baby

picture-42picture-32A common medical procedure may be the key to helping couples who’ve had no luck with artificial insemination and IVF. Could a common uterine biopsy make pregnancy “stick” for women having trouble conceiving? A small but growing number of couples are embracing an unusual use of biopsies during infertility treatments in the belief that they may help increase the chances of a successful pregnancy. In a handful of small studies, biopsies of the endometrium, the lining of the uterus, which are usually performed as a diagnostic tool to sample tissue and test for infections, disease or other problems, have been found to boost the pregnancy rates of women who had tried in-vitro fertilization and failed to become pregnant. One Toronto couple credits the procedure with the first successful pregnancy in 10 years of trying. After 11 artificial inseminations and two IVFs proved fruitless, Roslyn and Howard Kaman had experienced the gamut of failure, from miscarriages to ectopic pregnancies. They had opted to try adoption when they read an article about a lecture at Toronto’s Weizmann Science Canada by an Israeli researcher, Nava Dekel. In 2003, Dr. Dekel found that 45 women who had undergone a uterine biopsy during the menstrual cycle before undergoing IVF had almost twice the rate of pregnancies and births compared with a control group of 89 women. In 27.7 per cent of the women in the biopsy group, the embryo transfer was successful. The IVF worked for just 14.2 per cent of the control group. The Kamans wrote to Dr. Dekel, and she connected them with the fertility clinic in Israel that had performed the procedures. Doctors there sent the couple a detailed protocol, which involved three separate biopsies on particular days in the cycle just before an IVF treatment. The Kamans’ Toronto fertility specialist, Fay Weisberg, agreed to try it. Ms. Kaman became pregnant on the first IVF cycle after the procedure and baby Hannah is now three months old. “I still can’t believe it. I think I will go through my whole life and not believe we were successful,” says Ms. Kaman, 41. While broader research is being conducted to confirm the role these biopsies may be playing, anecdotal evidence is starting to mount suggesting that the disruption of the uterus somehow leads to the successful implantation of an embryo. Some practitioners say they’ll wait for randomized trial results before they start offering biopsies to IVF patients. Togas Tulandi, a McGill University medical researcher, is hoping to figure out what role the biopsies might play, if any, in the successful pregnancies of women like Ms. Kaman. He is in the midst of conducting a large randomized study (he hasn’t yet reached his goal of 162 participants) and says that if the biopsies are working, the mechanism may be akin to tilling the soil before you plant a tulip bulb. “Maybe this slight injury to the endometrium makes the environment for implantation better,” he says. “If we can prove that it works, we can do it routinely.” Since the procedure carries little risk, other than discomfort and a very small chance of infection or injury to the uterus, many fertility doctors are already incorporating it into their practices. While it is not listed on her menu of services at the First Steps Fertility clinic where she is medical partner, Dr. Weisberg says she now offers it to most of her patients who have failed to conceive with IVF and for most patients before they undergo a frozen embryo transfer. “I suspect that it will probably soon be a routine for all patients undergoing IVF.” The only reason it’s not routine is a paucity of large studies and the fact that it’s painful and uncomfortable for most women, she says. Although she can’t unequivocally say whether the biopsies are effective – “the women end up being their own control” – Dr. Weisberg has a hunch that they work. It could have something to do with increased blood flow, or the way in which the proteins in the uterus heal, she says. “I do believe something changes deep down.” And she’s not worried about a stampede for the procedure on the part of desperate couples. “Not to be cavalier, but this is a procedure already being done on younger women for bleeding of the uterus and other problems,” she says. “It’s easy, quick, but painful. There’s no anesthetic. You can go right back to work.” Other specialists take a more cautious approach. Fertility expert Arthur Leader does not offer it to patients at the Ottawa Fertility Centre where he practises. Until a randomized study such as Dr. Tulandi’s can prove that women undergoing these biopsies have a better chance of getting and staying pregnant, “the precautionary principle should apply,” he says. “You shouldn’t do it until a benefit has been shown.” He points out that there have been many other treatments, including low-dose Aspirin, a blood protein called albumin and a diabetes drug called metformin, that were believed to help women conceive and were routinely prescribed but which, after much study, proved either to do harm or have no effect. And, as far as Dr. Leader is concerned, “No good is harm.” For couples who end up with a healthy pregnancy after uterine biopsies, it’s hard not to credit the procedure for their little bundles of joy. Still, Ms. Kaman says that even though she suspects the treatment did work, there may have been some luck involved. When she imagines trying for a second IVF baby, “part of me thinks lightning’s not going to strike twice with us.” Anatomy of a biopsy An endometrial biopsy is performed by inserting a suction catheter through the vagina and cervix, into the uterus. The end is pressed up against the uterine wall where it cuts away a small sample of the lining tissue. Because of any number of factors, an embryo may not be able to attach itself to the cells that make up the lining of the uterus. After the biopsy is taken, some researchers and fertility experts believe that the slight damage caused to the wall of the uterus makes it a better environment for implantation, whether because of increased blood flow, the healing process or some other factor.

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The Perils Of Being Older Dads

Women with older partners may be at higher risk of suffering miscarriages irrespective of their own age, according to a study that has linked the increased chance of a failed pregnancy with men over the age of 40. Until now it was widely assumed that miscarriage rates largely increased with female age only, but a study into women undergoing artificial insemination with their partner’s sperm has found that it can also be linked with older men. Scientists also found that pregnancy rates fell as the male partner gets older. This may reflect a decline in sperm quality in men over 40 that affects both the chances of conception and the increased risk of a miscarriage, they said. It is the first time scientists have discovered such a strong paternal effect on rates of pregnancy and miscarriage, and they suggest that, in future, fertility clinics should look more closely at the age of men as well as the age of women when advising on treatment. Stephanie Belloc, of the Eylau Centre for Assisted Reproduction in Paris, said: “Until now … the message was to get pregnant before the age of 35 or 38 because afterwards it would be difficult. But now the gynaecologists must also focus on paternal age and give this information to the couple. ‘Fertility clinics should look more closely at the age of men’ “We suggest that there is a link between paternal age and DNA decay in the spermatozoa because we previously demonstrated that age is associated with increased sperm DNA fragmentation. So maybe there is a link between paternal age and DNA decay that are implied in the miscarriages. “I think it’s important to consider not only the woman, but both members of the couple in natural conception, but also in assisted reproductive technology [such as artificial insemination and IVF].” The scientists analysed data gathered at a fertility clinic that performs artificial inseminations directly into a woman’s uterus, a technique which improves the conception rate. They followed up 21,239 cases of these intrauterine inseminations to see whether the age of the man or the woman had any significant effect on the chances of conception and miscarriage. As expected, they found maternal age was a strong factor in pregnancy rates, with just 8.9 percent of women over the age of 35 getting pregnant, compared with 14.5 percent in younger women. ‘We also found that the age of the father was important in pregnancy rates’ “But we also found that the age of the father was important in pregnancy rates – men over 35 had a negative effect,” said Belloc. “And, perhaps more surprisingly, miscarriage rates increased where the father was over 35.” The study – the results of which were to be released at the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology in Barcelona – found the miscarriage rate among women with partners aged between 35 and 39 was 18.1 percent, but 33 percent for the partners of men aged between 40 and 44. Couples undergoing assisted reproductive technology where the man is older than 35 or 40 should consider using the technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), for directly injecting single sperm into an egg, because then the best sperm could be chosen for fertilisation, Belloc said. “It’s the conclusion of my study that ICSI should be the [technology] of choice when paternal age is increasing because we can choose the best spermatozoa. “We can choose spermatozoa without DNA fragmentation, and DNA fragmentation is increasing with paternal age. So it is a way to be free of paternal age.”

Older dads

TV presenter Des O’Connor’s wife, the Australian singer-songwriter Jodie Brooke Wilson (35), gave birth to their son Adam in September 2004. O’Connor, then 72, claimed: “It felt like the right time.”picture-1

US presidential hopeful John McCain was 48 when he and his wife Cindy had their first child together, the now-award-winning blogger Meghan McCain. They have since had two more.picture-2

There were a few sleepless nights at the Playboy mansion in the early 1990s when a sexagenarian Hugh Heffner fathered sons Marston and Cooper by his fiancee Kimberley Conrad.picture-4

When Leo Blair was born in 2000, 47-year-old Tony became the first serving prime minister to have a baby in more than 150 years.picture-3

Actor David Jason became a dad for the first time aged 61 when his daughter, Sophie Mae, was born.picture-6

A 56-year-old Michael Douglas welcomed Dylan Michel into the world in 2000, then married the mother, Catherine Zeta-Jones, soon afterwards. The couple had a daughter three years later. picture-5

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Easing fertility through lifestyle changes

ls11Couples who have been trying to conceive can easily grow impatient when their plans don’t go exactly, or as easily, as planned. But before concluding that they may have certain fertility problems or that they need fertility drugs or treatments, it is good to first take a closer look into the way they are leading their lives.

 A study by the Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) has found that women have a reduced risk of infertility due to ovulatory disorders if they adopt a combination of healthy lifestyle and dietary measures. The study, published in Obstetrics and Gynecology, was based on 17,544 women who were tracked for eight years as they attempted to get pregnant or became pregnant.   According to Dr Chavarro, the team leader,  ‘as women started following more of these recommendations, their risk of infertility dropped substantially for every one of the dietary and lifestyle strategies undertaken’. Senior author on the paper, and chair  of the HSPH Department of Nutrition, Walter Willett, said that ‘the key message of this paper is that making the right dietary choices and including the right amount of physical activity in your daily life may make a large difference in your probability of becoming fertile if you are experiencing problems with ovulation’. Infertility affects one in six couples, according to US studies, with ovulatory problems identified in 18 to 30 per cent of cases.

 There are some steps you can take to maximize your fertility and chances of conception, and have a healthier pregnancy. Simple lifestyle changes like eating healthier and quitting smoking can make a difference, as can regular exercise.

What you can do:

Following are some tips on how to maximize your chances of conception and your health before and during pregnancy.

Body Weight:

Being overweight or underweight can affect the chances of ovulating normally in a woman. It has been found that women who have 17% to 21% of their total body weight as fat provide the ideal condition for ovulation. Have less or more body fat may hinder your menstrual cycle, make conception difficult. Women that are underweight may want to consider putting on some weight if they find that menstruation tends to be sporadic. Additionally, being underweight may indicate that you will have a hard time producing the extra amount of energy required for pregnancy. Maintaining a healthy weight before conception is therefore advisable.

Overweight women with ovulation and menstrual cycle problems may want to lose some weight if they are having troubles conceiving. However, overweight women do not necessarily need to lose a significant amount of weight in order to help their conception rates. Even slightly reducing your weight can increase your chances of conceiving many folds. An Australian study found that, as soon as a group of obese women lost almost 20 pounds, their bodies began to spontaneously ovulate again. 

 

Eat Healthy

ls3A healthy diet is essential to your health — and your baby’s. Be sure to eat plenty of fruits and vegetables (at least five servings per day), eat low-fat dairy foods, and drink plenty of fluids for optimal health.

A recent study also suggests that woman’s diet around the time of conception can influence the gender of her baby. The study, completed by the Universities of Exeter and Oxford, appears in the Royal Society journal Biological Sciences and alleges that a woman who eats a high-calorie diet — and regular breakfasts — might have greater odds of having a boy. Participating in the study were 740 first-time pregnant women in the UK, who provided records of their eating habits before and just after becoming pregnant. Researchers found that 56% of women with the highest caloric intake around the time of becoming pregnant had boys, compared to just 45% among women with the lowest caloric intake.

 

Consider Going Organic

ls2Organic fruits, vegetables, meat and dairy products do not contain pesticides or synthetic growth hormones that many conventional foods may contain. What’s more, studies have shown that organically grown fruits and vegetables are actually more nutrient-rich than their conventional counterparts. Pregnant women, or women who are planning to become pregnant, may wish to switch to organic foods for better nutrition.

 

Exercise Regularly

ls4A healthy lifestyle also includes exercise. The American Society of Reproductive Medicine reports that regular exercise (five times a week for at least 45 minutes), as well as a healthy diet, boost fertility by keeping body weight at a normal level and relieving stress and anxiety. In addition, women who are overweight or obese have been shown to have increased perinatal mortality risk when they become pregnant. Exercise regularly for your health and the health of your baby to be.

A new study by the Kaiser Permanente Medical Group reports that women can decrease their chances of contracting gestational diabetes by not gaining weight. Women in the study who gained about 5-22 pounds each year prior to the five years before getting pregnant were 2.5 times more likely to develop gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is marked by glucose intolerance that is first experienced during pregnancy, and can require daily insulin injections. It is also associated with fetal complications. The condition usually resolves after childbirth.

 

Smoking

It has been known for a long time that smoking has a negative effect on conception but many fail to realise just how drastically smoking effects both male and female fertility. In men who smoke, sperm counts average 17% lower than those who do not smoke and it can also affect the health of the sperms.

Women who smoke not only increase the time it takes them to conceive as well as raise their the risk of spontaneous miscarriage, they also jeopardize the health of their baby yet to be born. Female smokers are also at a greater risk for delivering premature or low birth weight babies and developing pelvic inflammatory disease.

Studies have shown that smokers are 30% less fertile and require a much higher dose of fertility drugs if they opt for fertility treatments than non-smokers. Passive smoking, too, is equally dangerous to women and their pregnancy

The effects of reducing or totally stopping smoking can produce noticeable results in days.


Alcohol, Caffeine and Drugs

Regularly drinking alcohol can reduce fertility levels by up to 50%. It can also decrease sperm count while increasing the production of abnormal sperm. Similarly, drugs like marijuana and cocaine have been found to cause disruptions in a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Another chemical to avoid in order to improve your chances of conception is caffeine, which can be found in tea, coffee, chocolate and soft drinks. Caffeine reduces the fertility level of both men and women. Some studies have also shown a link between consuming large amounts of caffeine and delayed conception. What’s more, studies have also shown women who consume more than 300 mg (three 5 oz cups of coffee) a day may also be at an increased risk for miscarriage.

 

Reducing Stress

Stress can have a big effect on fertility. In women under stress, the reproductive hormone prolactin is over-produced and this can interfere with ovulation. The hypothalamus stops secreting gonadotrophin hormone, which in turn will affect the release of both the luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone. As these hormones stimulate ovulation – fertility is affected.

 

Know Your Cycle

It is essential to understand your monthly (or not so monthly, in some cases) cycle in order to maximize your chances of conception. Keep track of the days you menstruate and the length of your cycle for a few months, and use an ovulation calendar to track your ovulation to time your intercourse for conception.

 

So, there you have it – a range of natural ways to increase your fertility. Each of these lifestyle changes won’t guarantee that you will get pregnant, but following these changes may shift the odds and help you get the baby a little easier. Good Luck!!

 

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Cell phone risk to sperm supported

An in vitro comparison study has strengthened concerns that electromagnetic radiation from cell phones impairs male fertility.

 Ashok Agarwal (Cleveland Clinic, Ohio, USA) and colleagues set out to validate the implications of recent epidemiologic studies, which reported reductions in sperm motility, morphology, and viability associated with cell phone exposure.

 They studied neat semen samples from 23 normal healthy donors and nine infertility patients. They divided the samples into two aliquots and exposed one of each sample to radiation from cell phones in talk mode, leaving the second aliquot unexposed to serve as controls.

 Analysis revealed significantly lower sperm motility and sperm viability in aliquots of exposed compared with unexposed sperm (49 vs 52 percent and 52 vs 59 percent, respectively).

 Levels of reactive oxygen species were also significantly higher in samples of exposed compared with unexposed sperm (0.11 vs 0.06 x106 cpm/20 million sperm), Agarwal et al report.

 Total antioxidant capacity and levels of DNA damage did not differ significantly between the two groups.

 “We speculate that keeping the cell phone in a trouser pocket in talk mode may negatively affect spermatozoa and impair male fertility,” the researchers conclude.

 Source: Fertility and Sterility 2008; Advance online publication  

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Freezing improves DNA integrity

Gamete cryopreservation could help improve the fertility of men whose spermatozoa show a high level of prefreeze DNA fragmentation, study findings indicate.

 Laura Thomson (Fertility First, Hurstville, Australia) and co-authors note potential cryoinjury of sperm from subfertile men is an issue of primary concern “considering that subfertile men form a very large proportion of the men requiring semen cryopreservation.”

The findings were observed during a study comparing different cryoprotectants used to store spermatozoa for fertility treatment. The study involved 320 men who presented for fertility investigations and provided semen samples.

Post-thaw sperm DNA integrity was unaffected by the type of cryoprotectant used during freezing, but showed a significant, negative correlation with the prefreeze level of DNA fragmentation. Among men with prefreeze sperm DNA fragmentation levels within the normal range, 89 percent showed an increase in fragmentation post-thaw. Conversely, 64 percent of those with very high levels of prefreeze fragmentation showed a decrease in fragmentation post-thaw.

The authors suggest that the result “gives rise to a possible novel method of reducing fragmentation in sperm used for assisted reproductive technology treatment cycles, in some cases without the need for invasive and expensive testicular sperm retrievals.”

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Widow claims human right to use dead husband’s sperm

 

The UK’s High Court has ruled that it may have been unlawful for a widow to have removed her dead husband’s sperm. Despite UK law requiring valid written consent for the storage and use of sperm, the 42-year-old widow obtained emergency Court permission to have sperm collected from her 31-year-old husband’s body hours after he unexpectedly died from complications with a routine operation to remove his appendix in June 2007. She now seeks authorisation to undergo IVF abroad using his sperm. Giving the judgment, Mr Justice Charles said: ‘I am not satisfied it is possible to lawfully remove sperm from a dead person who has not given effective advanced consent’. 

The mother-of-one pleaded that the couple had wanted another child, discussed their desire with family and friends and had sought information regarding IVF together. She explained that they had not thought to have him provide written permission because they had not feared that the minor surgery would be fatal. While the attempt to construct retrospective consent with evidence of his intentions holds little legal weight in light of the clear statutory provisions, her lawyer also argued that disposal of his sperm would contravene her human right to establish a family (protected under article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, enshrined in UK law by the Human Rights Act 1998). Because fresh sperm will lose viability over time, the Court authorised the emergency sample collection pending later legal resolution. Upon closer examination at the hearing, Mr Justice Charles questioned the decision. 

The final decision now resides with the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA), which regulates gamete storage and its use. If permission is denied, then the HFEA decision will likely be legally challenged as was done by Diane Blood in a similar case in 1997. HFEA chair, Lisa Jardine, commented that the organisation sympathises with these ‘difficult’ situations but ‘must operate within the legislation’. 

This case, like the landmark Blood case, may turn on the statutory loophole that provides the HFEA discretionary powers to dispense with the consent requirements for the sperm to be exported – in accordance with an EU citizen’s right to receive health treatment in another member state. 

Diane Blood ultimately won a protracted legal battle through the English Courts in 1997 and was able to conceive two sons using her late husband’s sperm. The Bloods attempted to start a family but Stephen Blood contracted meningitis and lapsed into a coma – his sperm was collected shortly before he died in 1995. The HFEA refused Mrs Blood authorisation to use the sperm as she did not have written consent from her husband. The High Court upheld the authority’s decision because the HFE Act does not provide discretionary powers to waive domestic consent requirements. The Court of Appeal agreed but also decided that the authority could have used a statutory discretion to allow the transport of Blood’s sperm to Belgium for treatment.

In Blood’s case, Lord Hoffman noted that the sperm’s storage was unlawful without the requisite written consent. However, given the unprecedented circumstances, he realised it was necessary for the clinic to store the sperm first and decide the legality later. He commented that he did not foresee the Courts would consider the legality of exporting unlawfully stored sperm again. A decade later, posthumous sperm has unlawfully been stored pending resolution of new legal arguments and Mr Justice Charles has likewise declared the case a ‘novelty’ in the law. 

Following the Blood case, the Government held a review of the law. The 1998 report concluded that the ‘written consent’ requirement should remain. Coincidentally, on the same day last week, MPs in the lower house of Victoria, Australia passed a package of reproductive law reforms which included a controversial clause to allow women to conceive using their partner’s posthumous gametes provided she has prior written consent.

Posted by: Goral Gandhi, MSc

                  Laboratory Director

                  Rotunda – The Center For Human Reproduction

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